二战之后，新加坡当然还不属于发达国家， 但在西欧诸国很快的就成了发达国家， 从法律上禁止向人问Race字， 有荷兰，比利时，德国，奥地利，等国。。
PROTECTION AGAINST RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN THE EU
http://www.europe.ohchr.org/Docu ... ons/CERD_Reader.pdf
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination was adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 A (XX) of 21 December 1965. It entered into force on 4 January 1969, in accordance with its article 19.
Article 1, paragraph 1 - Definition of discrimination and its grounds
Article 1, paragraph 1, stipulates that “‘racial discrimination’ shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin, which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, or human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life”. It is complemented by the Committee’s general recommendation No. 14 (1993) on the definition of discrimination.
The Committee made few comments on the definition of discrimination in the legal regimes of States parties. However, it did express its concern in the case of Latvia (2003):
8. The Committee is concerned that the legal provisions defining racial discrimination are not in full conformity with article 1 (1) of the Convention. While acknowledging that amendments to the 2001 Labour Law are being prepared that will define indirect discrimination, the Committee notes that basing the finding of indirect discrimination on a quantitative condition is not in accordance with the Committee's general recommendation No. 14. Furthermore, it notes that the relevant provisions of the Labour Law and the Criminal Law lack reference to certain grounds of discrimination enumerated in the Convention… [The Committee] urges the State party to incorporate fully the definition of racial discrimination stipulated in article 1 (1) of the Convention, into its legislation.
In its concluding observations on Germany (2008), the Committee noted the absence of a definition of racial discrimination owing to reservations (for historical reasons) with regard to the use of the term “race” or “racial” in legislation:
15. While noting the State party’s reservations with regard to the use of the term “race”, the Committee is concerned that the State party’s strong focus on xenophobia, anti-Semitism and right-wing extremism may lead to the neglect of other forms of racial discrimination. The Committee is also concerned that the overall legislative design of key provisions of the Criminal Code may not be sufficiently precise in relation to racist elements in crimes. In this connection, the Committee also regrets the absence of a definition of racial discrimination in the State party’s domestic legislation (art. 1). The Committee recommends that the State party consider adopting a clear and comprehensive definition of racial discrimination in its national legislation, in accordance with article 1, paragraph 1, of the Convention.
而美国法律思想也有批判种族理论法学的产生 Critical Race Theory (CRT),
Critical Race Theory (CRT), an American legal theory, has been known for bringing race into left-wing legal analysis and for introducing power- and domination-related arguments into more traditional civil rights scholarship.
[ 本帖最后由 楚越 于 2013-8-11 00:21 编辑