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WHEN 的七种用法
WHEN 的七种用法

He has not told me when he will be back. 这句英文为什么不对?

关健在when 一字.

因为when 作为疑问副词, 是不能与perfect tense连用的, 我们不能说When have you come back? 只能说When did you come back?

同样的道理, 质问中的句子, 应作:

He did not tell me when he would be back.

这完全指的是过去, 与现在无关, 所以, 不能用现在完成时态.

英文的when一字, 虽也可用作名词 (如He told me the when and the why of it.) 或代名词 (如Since when has he been ill?) 但主要是用作疑问副词及关系副词解:

I don’t know the exact time when he will arrive. (关系副词)

I don’t know when he will arrive. (疑问副词)

将第一句中的先行词the exact time去掉, 这个形容词子句when he will arrive就变成know的宾语, 所以关系副词的when也就变成疑问副词的when了.

疑问副词的用法是最简单的, 例如:

When shall we go? (我们何时去?)

I don’t know when it was. (我不知道那在何时.)

有人把它当作连词的关系副词的用法, 就复杂得多事, 可分为七项. 举例说明如下:

(1)        当…之时 (at the moment)

He didn’t tell me when he went out. (当他出外时, 他没告诉我.)

(2)        正当 (and just then)

We were about to start, when it began to rain. (正当我们出门时, 天下起雨来了.)

(3)        每当 (whenever)

It is cold when it snows. (每当下雪, 天气很冷.)

(4)        当…之后 (after the time that)  

He will go when he has finished his dinner. (他吃过晚饭后就去.)

(5)        虽则 (although)

We have only three books when we need five. (我们只有三本书, 虽则我们需要五本.)  

(6)        只要 (if)

You shall have it when you say, “please”. (只要你说一句 “请给我”, 你就可以拿去.)

(7)        想到 (considering)

How can I refuse when refusal means death? (考虑到一拒绝就没命了, 我怎能拒绝呢?)




(摘自钱歌川著《英文疑难详解》)

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